Carbon is a versatile element that forms the basis of all living organisms and many of the things we use such as- food, clothes, medicines, books etc.
The earth crust has only 0.02% carbon in the form of minerals like coal, petroleum, carbonates, and hydrogen- carbonates.
The atmosphere has 0.03% of carbon di-oxide.
Carbon is a Non-metal.
Covalent Bond:-- The bond formed by sharing of electrons between same or different atoms is called covalent bond.
VERSATILE NATURE OF CARBON :--
The nature of the covalent bond enables carbon to form a large number of compounds called organic compounds or carbon compounds.
1. Catenation - Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other atoms of carbon giving rise to large molecules. This property is called catenation.
2.Tetravalency- Carbon has four valence electrons. It can bond with four carbon atoms monovalent atoms, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine etc.
Q. State the reason why carbon can neither form C 4+ cations nor C 4– anions, but forms covalent compounds. Also state reasons to explain why covalent compounds: (a) are bad conductors of electricity? (b) have low melting and boiling points?Ans: Carbon atoms have 4 electrons in their outermost shell. So needs to gain or lose electrons to attain noble gas configuration. It could gain four electrons forming C4- anion. But it would be diff... read more