Explain Carbon & its compounds in Chemistry

Updated on Jan. 8, 2021 03:18 PM IST by Lakshmi Arya

Carbon is a versatile element that forms the basis of all living organisms and many of the things we use such as- food, clothes, medicines, books etc.

The earth crust has only 0.02% carbon in the form of minerals like coal, petroleum, carbonates, and hydrogen- carbonates.

The atmosphere has 0.03% of carbon di-oxide.

Carbon is a Non-metal.

Covalent Bond:-- The bond formed by sharing of electrons between same or different atoms is called covalent bond.

The nature of the covalent bond enables carbon to form a large number of compounds called organic compounds or carbon compounds.
1. Catenation - Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other atoms of carbon giving rise to large molecules. This property is        called catenation.

  1. Silicon forms compounds with hydrogen which have chains of upto 7-8 atoms, but these compounds are very reactive.
  2. The carbon-carbon bond is very strong and stable. This gives us the large number of compounds with many carbon atoms linked to each other.

2.Tetravalency- Carbon has four valence electrons. It can bond with four carbon atoms monovalent atoms, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine etc.

  1.  One reason for the formation of strong bonds by carbon is it small size. This enables the nucleus to hold onto the shared pair of electrons strongly. The bonds formed by elements having larger atoms are much weaker.
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