Explain Transportation in Plants in Biology OR What is Transportation in Plants ?

Updated on Jan. 8, 2021 03:22 PM IST by Lakshmi Arya

Plant transport systems move energy from leaves and raw materials from roots to all their parts.

  1.  For plants the soil is a nearest and richest source of raw materials like nitrogen, phosphorus and other minerals.
  2.  The absorption of these substances therefore occurs through the part in contact with the soil, namely roots.
  3.  If the distances between the roots and the leaves are small, energy and raw materials can easily diffuse to all parts of the plant body.
  4.  But if these distances become large diffusion processes will not be sufficient to provide the raw materials in leaves and energy in roots.
  5.  A proper system of transportation (xylem and phloem) is therefore essential in such situations.
  6.  Plants do not move and plant bodies have a large proportion of dead cells in many tissues. As a result, plants have low energy needs, and can use relatively slow transport systems.

The loss of water in the form of vapor from the leaves (i.e. aerial parts) of the plant is known as transpiration.

The transport of soluble products of photosynthesis is known as translocation.

TRANSPIRATION:

It is the process of loss of water as vapour from aerial parts of the plant. This process helps the plants in the following ways :
(1) Absorption and upward movement of water and minerals dissolved in it from roots to the leaves.
(2) Helps in temperature regulation in plants. The effect of root pressure in transport of water is more important at night. During the day when the stomata are open, the transpiration pull becomes the major driving force in the movement of water in the xylem. No energy is used in transpiration

TRANSLOCATION:

It is the process of transport of food from leaves (food factory) to different parts of the plant. Energy from ATP is used during translocation.

There are two main conducting pathways (tubes) in a plant :
1. XYLEM which moves water and minerals obtained from the soil.
2. PHLOEM which transports products of photosynthesis from the leaves, where they are synthesized, to the other parts of the plant

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